HIV/AIDS. Find the Best Supplements & Treatments to Stay Healthy.

Updated: 11/28/23

Living with HIV/AIDS can be an incredibly difficult and nerve-wracking experience, but you don’t have to feel helpless in the face of this troubling diagnosis. There’s no one-size-fits all solution when it comes to staying healthy, but with the right combination of supplements and treatments, you can maintain your health over the long-term. In this blog post, we’ll discuss some of the best course of action for people living with HIV/AIDS — from dietary supplements that will boost your immunity to natural treatments that may help manage common symptoms associated with HIV! With open communication and a commitment to maintaining a healthy lifestyle, individuals living with HIV/AIDS can stay strong and manage their condition despite any obstacles they might face. Let’s dive in!

What is HIV/AIDS?

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) is a virus that attacks the immune system, which is the body’s natural defense against infections and diseases. The virus specifically targets CD4 cells, which are white blood cells that help fight infections. When HIV infects CD4 cells, it can damage or kill them, making it harder for the body to fight off infections and other illnesses.

Over time, if left untreated, HIV can progress to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). AIDS is a more advanced stage of the disease in which the immune system is severely damaged, making the body vulnerable to life-threatening infections and cancers. There is currently no cure for HIV/AIDS, but there are treatments that can help people live longer and healthier lives.

Symptoms of HIV/AIDS

As an HIV infection progresses, a patient will experience different symptoms depending on the phase of the disease. There are three primary phases — acute HIV infection, chronic HIV infection and AIDS.

Acute HIV Infection

Acute HIV infection occurs about 2 to 4 weeks from the time a person is first infected with the HIV virus. During those few weeks, the virus is just beginning to multiply, and there are no symptoms. At that point, symptoms will begin to appear. They include:


A fever is one of the first and most common symptoms of acute HIV infection in most people. It usually appears within two to four weeks after being exposed to the virus and lasts for some days. The fever is an indication that the immune system is fighting off the infection.


Another common symptom of acute HIV infection is a rash that appears after the fever. The rash may show up on any part of the body and may persist for several weeks or go away within a few days. The rash may also be accompanied by other symptoms like fatigue, muscle aches, and joint pain.


Acute HIV infection can also result in severe headaches and migraines that persist for several days. Headaches may be accompanied by other symptoms like dizziness, sensitivity to light, or impaired vision.

Night Sweats

Night sweats are severe sweating episodes that occur at night and can make you wake up drenched in sweat. It is another common symptom of acute HIV infection, and it is usually accompanied by other symptoms like fever, chills, and muscle aches.

Sore Throat

An inflamed throat and other related symptoms like tender lymph nodes, mouth ulcers, and difficulty swallowing are among the signs of acute HIV infection, although it’s a less common symptom.


Fatigue is a common symptom of acute HIV infection that occurs due to an elevated level of the virus in the bloodstream, causing the body to work harder to fight the virus. You may experience severe fatigue that persists for weeks or months.

Swollen Lymph Nodes

People with acute HIV infection may also experience swollen lymph nodes, which are a part of the immune system. When the immune system detects an infection, it triggers the lymph nodes to produce more white blood cells that fight off the infection. Swollen lymph nodes are usually in the neck, armpits, and groin areas. They tend to be painless and noticeable.

Mouth Ulcers

Mouth ulcers are also a common symptom of acute HIV infection. These sores can develop in different areas of your mouth and throat, and their presence may make it difficult to eat, drink or speak. The ulcers are typically shallow and painful, and may last for a few days or a few weeks.

Chronic HIV Infection

After the initial acute HIV infection, symptoms for chronic HIV infection can disappear for up to 10 years. During this time, the virus continues to multiply in the blood, and the patient continues to be contagious. For some people, symptoms may reappear for short times at lower levels. For others, there are no symptoms at all.

Weight Loss 

Chronic HIV infection can cause significant weight loss. In some cases, people with HIV may struggle to maintain a healthy weight despite eating the right foods. The weight loss can contribute to muscle atrophy and weakness, so be sure to see your healthcare practitioner if you’re experiencing unexplained weight loss.

Memory Loss 

HIV- Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) can cause memory and concentration problems. Symptoms of HAND can include difficulty following directions or concentrating, forgetting appointments, or misplacing everyday items. If you’re experiencing these symptoms, it’s essential to seek medical attention from a qualified healthcare professional.

Neurological Symptoms

HIV can affect the nervous system, leading to symptoms like headaches, difficulty concentrating, and seizures. These symptoms can appear early on in the infection or later on as the virus progresses. If you experience any neurological symptoms, it’s essential to speak with your healthcare provider as soon as possible.

Skin Problems

Skin changes like bumps, rashes, and sores can be a sign of chronic HIV infection. These skin changes can appear anywhere on your body. It’s essential to have them evaluated by a healthcare practitioner, as they could be a sign of an underlying infection.

Gastrointestinal Issues

Chronic HIV infection can cause a range of digestive issues. These issues can include diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and cramping. The causes of these symptoms are complex and may involve the virus itself or the medications used to treat it.

Menstrual Irregularities

Chronic HIV symptoms in women can include menstrual irregularities, including a period that’s lighter or heavier than usual, out of rhythm, or doesn’t arrive at all. HIV also puts women at a higher risk of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), an infection of the uterus, ovaries and fallopian tubes. In women with HIV, PID can be more severe and take longer to treat than it does for HIV-negative women.

In most cases, chronic infections can be managed with anti-retroviral medications. However, when left untreated, the infection almost inevitably leads to AIDS within about 10 to 12 years.


AIDS is the final stage of HIV infection. Technically, a patient is diagnosed with AIDS when their CD4 T cell count drops below 200. This typically happens after 10 to 12 years of HIV infection. The CD4 T cell is the specific type of red blood cell that’s targeted by the virus. When a person’s count drops below 200, their immune system is severely compromised, and they’re vulnerable to a number of infections that are called “opportunistic infections”. These are infections that might be a mild illness for a healthy person, but can be deadly for someone with AIDS. AIDS also makes a person vulnerable to some cancers that are otherwise very rare.

When an infection has progressed to the point of AIDS, a person experiences additional symptoms or progression of previous symptoms that worsen.

Weight Loss and Appetite Loss

AIDS can cause a person to lose weight and lose their appetite, which can lead to malnutrition and other health problems. This is because the virus attacks the cells in the body that are responsible for maintaining a healthy weight and appetite.

Respiratory Problems

AIDS can also cause respiratory problems, including coughing, shortness of breath, and chest pain. These symptoms can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections and damage to the lungs caused by the virus.

Chronic Fatigue

Persistent exhaustion is a hallmark symptom of AIDS. The body’s immune system works overtime to fight off infections, leading to severe fatigue that can last for weeks or even months.

Persistent Fever

Fevers are a common symptom of HIV and AIDS but can become more persistent and severe in the final stage of the disease. This is because the immune system is increasingly compromised and unable to fight off infections.


Chills are a common symptom of AIDS in its final stages. They may be accompanied by fever, which can persist for several days. This is often an indication that the immune system is severely compromised and the body is struggling to fight off infections.

Persistent Swelling of Lymph Glands

Lymph glands are an essential part of the immune system and are located in the neck, armpits, and groin. Swollen lymph glands are a common symptom of AIDS in its final stages, and can cause discomfort and pain.

Persistent Diarrhea

Diarrhea is often a symptom of various infections that are common in people with AIDS. It is a common symptom in the later stages of the disease and can be extremely debilitating.

Sores on the Mouth, Anus, and Genitals

Oral and genital sores are common in people with AIDS. These sores are a result of immune system dysfunction, which makes the body more susceptible to infections.


Pneumonia is a serious and potentially life-threatening complication of AIDS. It is caused by a variety of opportunistic infections and can be difficult to treat.

Shortness of Breath

Shortness of breath can be caused by Pneumocystis pneumonia, a type of infection that is particularly common in people with AIDS. The infection can cause severe lung damage, making it difficult to breathe.

Memory Loss and Depression

Memory loss and depression are often seen in people with AIDS who are in the later stages of the disease. Depression can be particularly debilitating, and may require therapy or medication to manage.

Causes of HIV/AIDS

Complications From HIV/AIDS

The main danger from HIV isn’t the disease itself. Rather, it’s the complications of it that can cause the most harm. Here are a few of the dangerous conditions that can result from an infection that’s progressed to the point of AIDS. Because of these complications, AIDS life expectancy is only about 3 to 6 years, although some people have lived for decades with proper care and treatment.


The primary risk of AIDS is infection with another virus or bacteria. Without enough CD4 T cells, these infections can become life-threatening. They include tuberculosis, cryptosporidiosis, cytomegalovirus and toxoplasmosis. Less exotic infections include cryptococcal meningitis, other STIs such as syphilis or gonorrhea and even run-of-the-mill urinary tract infections.

One complication that deserves special mention is pneumonia. AIDS and pneumonia together present a significant risk to a patient’s health, since fluid builds up in the lungs and the patient is ultimately unable to breathe. This is particularly problematic because pneumonia is typically caused by a case of the common cold that develops into bronchitis. This puts AIDS patients at risk even from a simple seasonal cold.


AIDS patients are at increased risk of a cancer called Kaposi’s sarcoma. This is a cancer of the blood and lymph nodes, and it’s caused by a virus called HHV-8. Healthy immune systems are able to keep HHV-8 under control, but AIDS patients’ immune systems are unable to keep up. As a result, they can develop Kaposi’s sarcoma. Another major cancer risk for AIDS patients is lymphoma. This is an aggressive cancer that requires aggressive treatment.

Neurological Complications

HIV/AIDS can also affect the brain and nervous system. This can lead to complications such as dementia, epilepsy, and neuropathy. These complications can significantly impact a person’s quality of life, and it’s important to seek medical attention if you experience any neurological symptoms.

Mental Health Issues

Living with HIV/AIDS can take a toll on a person’s mental health. It’s common for people with HIV/AIDS to experience depression, anxiety, and other mental health issues. It’s important to seek support and treatment if you’re struggling with your mental health.

Cardiovascular Disease

Studies have shown that people with HIV/AIDS have a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease. This includes conditions such as heart attacks, strokes, and peripheral vascular disease. It’s important to maintain a healthy lifestyle to prevent cardiovascular disease, such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, and maintaining a healthy diet.

Kidney Disease

HIV/AIDS can also impact the kidneys and lead to kidney disease. This can cause symptoms such as fluid retention, swelling, and decreased urine output. It’s important to monitor kidney function regularly if you have HIV/AIDS and speak to a doctor if you experience any symptoms. If this progresses far enough, a patient may require dialysis or even a transplant. Because this is a known risk, most doctors keep a close eye on kidney function in AIDS patients.

Other Complications

The most well-known complication of these is HIV wasting syndrome, or the involuntary loss of 10 percent or more of body weight. This can happen due to a wide variety of causes, including AIDS-related diarrhea, loss of appetite, or sickness from opportunistic infections.

Causes of HIV/AIDS

The structure of the human immunodeficiency virus is a bundle of genetic material enclosed in a spherical protein shell. The genetic material of HIV consists of tightly bundled amino acid strands called RNA. When this RNA is injected into a host cell, it uses that host cell to produce more copies of the HIV virus until the host cell is destroyed. Unfortunately, HIV’s favorite host cells are white blood cells, the same cells your body uses to fight disease. This is one reason HIV has been so difficult to treat.


HIV is transmitted when certain bodily fluids are transferred from an infected person to an uninfected person. According to the National Institute for Health, these fluids are (x):

  • Blood
  • Semen
  • Pre-seminal fluids
  • Rectal fluids
  • Vaginal fluids
  • Breast milk

Notably, this list does not include saliva. As a result, it’s impossible to spread HIV through ordinary, everyday physical contact.

The most common way of contracting HIV is by having unprotected sex, whether oral, anal or vaginal. Using a condom can significantly reduce the risk of getting infected in this way. Another common route of infection is by intravenous drug use, since needles are rarely properly sterilized. You can also get HIV from a blood transfusion, although that’s less of a risk these days than it used to be.

An infected mother can give HIV to her child. This can happen either during pregnancy, because of blood exchange through the umbilical cord, or after pregnancy due to HIV-contaminated breast milk.

Occupational Exposure 

Health care workers, laboratory technicians, and first responders may be at risk of contracting HIV/AIDS through accidental needle-sticks and other occupational injuries.

Types of HIV

There are two strains of the HIV virus — HIV-1 and HIV-2. About 95 percent of current HIV patients worldwide are infected with HIV-1, while HIV-2 is found primarily in West Africa, although it’s starting to appear in other parts of the world. While both strains have virtually identical effects, there’s a key difference between HIV-1 vs. HIV-2 that explains why HIV-1 is more prevalent. For reasons that aren’t yet fully understood, HIV-2 transmission rates are 5 to 10 times lower for heterosexual sex, and 20 to 30 times lower for mother-child transmission. As a result, HIV-2 has not spread as quickly through the population.

Diagnosing HIV/AIDS

There are two primary methods of diagnosing HIV/AIDS. The first, as we’ve already discussed, is by measuring a patient’s CD4 T cell count. If it falls below 200, the infection progresses to the AIDS stage.

Another method is to measure the viral load. This is by measuring how many copies of the virus are present in a milliliter of a patient’s blood. A count of 10,000 or less is a low consideration, and means the virus is relatively well-controlled. The ultimate goal of any treatment is an undetectable count, which falls around 20 or lower. On the other hand, a count of 100,000 or more is high, and means the disease is at risk of progressing.

Treatment For HIV/AIDS

There is no cure for HIV/AIDS. However, advances in medical technology have advanced to the point where an HIV-positive person who is receiving treatment has the same life expectancy as an HIV-negative person. Without treatment, the infection will eventually advance to the point of AIDS, so it’s essential to get treatment immediately.

Antiretroviral Therapy (ART)

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a type of treatment that involves taking a combination of medications that can slow down the progression of the disease. ART helps to reduce the viral load in the body, which in turn helps to keep the immune system strong. It’s important to start ART as soon as possible after being given a diagnosis with HIV/AIDS to prevent further complications. ART proves to be highly effective when consistently in use as a prescription instructs.

Antiretroviral drugs fall into different categories:

Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs)

NNRTIs work by preventing the virus from reproducing. Normally, RNA from the virus enters a CD4 T cell, and uses material from the cell’s nucleus to convert into DNA. NNRTIs block this reaction, so the virus’ RNA load is wasted.

Nucleoside and Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs)

NRTIs do the same thing as NNRTIs, but via slightly different chemical mechanisms.

Depending on how a particular patient responds to particular medications, they may need one medication, or a combination of two or more. A good doctor will constantly monitor a patient’s CD4 T cell count and viral load, and adjust their medication accordingly.

PrEP (Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis)

Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) is a medication that can help to prevent HIV infection. PrEP is a combination of two medications, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and emtricitabine (FTC). It is to take daily, and it’s essential to take it as by instructions to ensure its effectiveness. PrEP is highly effective when used consistently and in combination with other safe sex practices.

Post-exposure Prophylaxis (PEP)

Post-exposure prophylaxis or PEP is a treatment in use immediately after exposure to HIV. It involves taking a combination of antiretroviral medications for four weeks after exposure. PEP is often in use in emergency rooms and clinics after a possible exposure to HIV, for example, after a sexual assault. PEP can reduce the chances of HIV becoming established in the body.

HIV Vaccine

Scientists are continuously working on developing an HIV vaccine to prevent or manage HIV. Currently, there is no approved vaccine to prevent HIV, but there are some promising trials in progress. There is hope that one day there will be a vaccine that will protect people against HIV.

Clinical Trials

Clinical trials are research studies that test new medications, treatments, or approaches to disease management. Several clinical trials for HIV treatment are taking place across the world. Clinical trials can provide access to new treatments for people living with HIV, and can also play a critical role in identifying new advances in HIV treatment.

Nutritional Supplements

Taking nutritional supplements can help to support the immune system and overall health of those living with HIV/AIDS. Supplements like vitamin D, zinc, and selenium have been shown to support immune function and reduce cellular damage caused by the virus. A healthy, balanced diet is also crucial for those living with HIV/AIDS. It’s essential to get enough protein, vitamins, and minerals to help support the body’s immune system.

Alternative Therapies

Some people living with HIV/AIDS may choose to incorporate alternative therapies into their treatment plan. These therapies may include acupuncture, massage, meditation, and yoga. While there is a limit to research to support the effectiveness of these treatments, they may help to reduce stress and anxiety and improve overall quality of life.

Mental Health Support

Living with HIV/AIDS can be challenging, and it’s essential to receive appropriate mental health support. Support groups, counseling, and therapy can help individuals living with HIV/AIDS to cope with their diagnosis and any emotional or psychological issues. It’s important to seek help from a qualified mental health professional who is able to treat individuals living with HIV/AIDS.

Supplements For HIV/AIDS & Immune Health

Because HIV/AIDS and antiretroviral drugs can take a toll on your body, it’s important for patients to take a full round of supplements. Please include your physician before adding supplements into your diet as they can offer their expertise. These include:

Vitamin C

Apart from being an antioxidant, vitamin C plays a crucial role in maintaining immune health. Increased stress levels, poor nutrition, and infections can result in low levels of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) in the body, which is highly important for individuals living with HIV. Research shows that vitamin C can help reduce various HIV-related complications, including the risk of pneumonia, diarrhea, and death.


Selenium is an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in immunity. Studies suggest that individuals with HIV/AIDS have lower selenium levels, which can lead to oxidative stress and immune suppression. Supplementing with selenium has been shown to improve immune function and reduce the risk of complications such as diarrhea, pneumonia, and other infections.

Vitamin B12

If you’re living with HIV/AIDS, you may be at risk for deficiencies in this important nutrient. You need B12 to make red blood cells and maintain a healthy nervous system. Studies have shown that people with HIV/AIDS who have low levels of B12 may be more likely to develop infections and have a poorer prognosis. Make sure you’re getting enough B12 from food sources like meat, fish, and dairy, or consider supplementing with a B-complex vitamin.


This mineral is essential for maintaining strong bones and teeth, but it also plays a role in immune function. Studies have shown that people with HIV/AIDS may be more likely to develop osteoporosis, so it’s important to make sure you’re getting enough calcium. Good food sources include dairy products, leafy greens, and fortified foods. You may also want to consider a calcium supplement.

Vitamin D

This vitamin is important for bone health and may also play a role in immune function. If you’re not spending much time outdoors, you may not be getting enough vitamin D from sunlight, so you may need to get it from your diet. Good food sources include fortified foods, fatty fish, and egg yolks. You could also consider a vitamin D supplement.

Coenzyme Q10

This nutrient has involvement in energy production and may also have antioxidant properties. Some studies have suggested that people with HIV/AIDS may have lower levels of CoQ10, so it may be beneficial to get CoQ10 supplement. Good food sources include fatty fish, organ meats, and whole grains.


This amino acid has involvement in energy production and may also have antioxidant properties. Studies have shown that people with HIV/AIDS who supplement with l-carnitine may have improved immune function and better quality of life. Good food sources include meat and dairy products, or you can consider a l-carnitine supplement.


This amino acid is important for protein synthesis and may also have antioxidant properties. Some studies have suggested that people with HIV/AIDS may have lower levels of l-cysteine, so supplementing could be beneficial. Good food sources include meat, dairy products, and legumes. You may also purchase l-cysteine supplement from our website.

Alpha-lipoic acid

This antioxidant can help protect cells from damage and may also help improve glucose utilization. Some studies have suggested that alpha-lipoic acid may be beneficial for people with HIV/AIDS, but more research is needed. Good food sources include organ meats and spinach, or you can consider an ALA supplement.


Zinc is an essential mineral that is involved in various physiological processes, including immune function. Individuals with HIV/AIDS often suffer from low zinc levels, which can lead to immune suppression, poor wound healing, and a higher risk of infections. Zinc supplementation can support immune function and help prevent opportunistic infections in people living with HIV/AIDS.


Probiotics are beneficial bacteria that help maintain a healthy gut microbiome. Studies suggest that individuals living with HIV can have an imbalanced gut microbiome, which can lead to inflammation, malabsorption, and immune dysfunction. Probiotic supplementation can help improve gut health, reduce inflammation, and support immune function.

Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Omega-3 fatty acids are essential fats that are crucial for various physiological processes, including immune function. Studies show that individuals with HIV/AIDS often have lower levels of omega-3 fatty acids, which can lead to inflammation and immune suppression. Supplementing with omega-3 fatty acids has been shown to improve immune function, reduce inflammation, and improve overall health in people living with HIV/AIDS.

Ginkgo Biloba

Ginkgo biloba is a powerful antioxidant that helps to support immune system health. It shows to improve cognitive function, reduce inflammation, and protect against cell damage. Studies have also found that it can support healthy blood flow and lower blood pressure. HIV/AIDS patients often suffer from high blood pressure, and taking ginkgo biloba supplements could provide significant benefits.

Milk Thistle

Milk thistle is an herb that has been used for centuries to support liver health. This supplement is beneficial for HIV/AIDS patients because the condition can cause liver damage or put significant strain on the liver. Milk thistle has potent antioxidants that can help to flush toxins out of the liver and reduce inflammation. It can also improve insulin resistance, which many patients experience.


Valerian is a natural supplement that is often used to reduce anxiety and stress. It can also help to improve sleep quality and alleviate pain. Patients with HIV/AIDS often suffer from anxiety and sleeplessness, and valerian root could provide a natural solution.

The Bottom Line

HIV/AIDS is a serious condition, but with the right treatment and care, people can lead long and healthy lives while managing their condition. It’s important to diagnose HIV early and seek treatment as soon as possible. Antiretroviral therapy is the mainstay of HIV treatment, and taking medication as prescribed by a healthcare professional is critical to keeping the viral load low and managing the condition. Preventative treatments like PrEP and PEP are also available for people at high risk of contracting HIV. Participating in clinical trials can provide access to new treatments and contribute to the ongoing development of HIV treatments. If you’re living with HIV, it’s best to consult a healthcare professional to determine the best treatment plan for your condition. Remember, with the right treatment and care, it’s possible to live a healthy and fulfilling life with HIV.

Understanding the different types of HIV is crucial for effective diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of the virus. While HIV-1 is the most common strain, there are other strains that exist and may have different responses to treatment. It is important to get a test for HIV if you think you may have experience with exposure. Regular testing and early detection are key to managing this virus. 

Living with HIV/AIDS can be a challenge, but taking supplements can help to improve overall health. We hope that this list of supplements will give you an idea of what to look for when shopping for HIV/AIDS supplements. Of course, it’s always important to talk to your doctor before starting a new supplement regimen. With the right supplements and a healthy lifestyle, you can stay strong, healthy, and active for years to come.

These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease

Author: Ryan Quigley
Graduate of Longwood University in Virginia. Part-time sports journalist covering the Vegas Golden Knights.