L-citrulline DL malate, also called citrulline malate, is a supplement that athletes and bodybuilders use for endurance and energy. There are two forms with different ratios: L-citrulline DL-malate 2:1 and L-citrulline DL-malate 1:1. A number of studies support its potential to increase exercise performance and energy output and provide other benefits such as reducing muscle pain and fatigue, growing and repairing muscle tissue, eliminating toxins, managing blood pressure and improving cell metabolism (x).
German-born English biochemist Hans Adolf Krebs discovered three important metabolic reactions working with mammalian liver and other specimens—the urea cycle (1932), the Krebs cycle (1937) and the glyoxylate cycle (1945). In his discovery, his research suggested that L-citrulline and malate—or malic acid—played key roles in these processes (x).
What Is L-Citrulline DL Malate?
L-citrulline DL malate is the combination of L-citrulline—a nonessential amino acid—and malate— a salt of the organic compound malic acid. Amino acids are proteins that join in a variety of combinations to build proteins.
Discovery of L-Citrulline & Malate
Japanese scientists Koga and Odake first isolated L-citrulline from watermelon juice in 1914. The body also produces it adequately, making it a nonessential amino acid. L-citrulline is also part of the urea cycle with L-arginine and L-ornithine, two semi-essential and nonessential amino acids, respectively (x, x).
In 1785, Swedish pharmacist Carl Wilhelm Scheele isolated malate from unripe apples. This natural acid is responsible for the sour taste of certain fruits. It is also found in some vegetables and used as a common additive and preservative in desserts, candy, wines and other food products. The body also produces malate via the tricarboxylic (TCA) or citric acid cycle. It may also boost exercise and sports performance and combined with L-citrulline, it can add more energy (x, x). The organic compound is critical to the urea cycle (x).
What Is the Urea Cycle?
The urea cycle is a series of metabolic reactions that ultimately excretes toxic ammonia from the body. The process occurs in the liver’s mitochondrial cells and cytosol matrix and the kidneys (x). We ingest nitrogen from our daily diets, especially from proteins. It forms urea in the liver, which consists of metabolic wastes or substances we don’t need. The kidneys excrete them from the body as urine.
This process also produces ammonia, which is toxic to the very cells, blood and organs that transport it out of the body. So, it has to be converted into a nontoxic form. The first two steps in the process occur in the mitochondria. The remaining steps occur in the cytosol matrix—the liquid portion of the liver—before being released into the blood, which then transports it to the kidneys (x).
What Does L-Citrulline DL Malate Do in the Body?
- Improve the ammonia recycling process, eliminating the toxin from the body.
- Support nitric oxide metabolism for better vasodilation and blood flow.
- Increase plasma ornithine and arginine to reserve more energy and grow and repair muscle.
Exercise Endurance & Fatigue
According to studies, L-citrulline DL malate supplements may aid both aerobic or cardio exercise—such as walking, jogging and swimming—or anaerobic exercise such as bodybuilding or weightlifting. A byproduct of any form of exercise is toxic ammonia and it can cause fatigue and reduce performance as it accumulates. Meanwhile, the body is also using up its energy supply. L-citrulline DL malate supplements may boost the elimination of ammonia and increase energy reserves.
Research studies have used various types of subjects—men complaining of fatigue, advanced male and female weightlifters and animals—and these studies suggest that the supplement may have alleviated fatigue and increased endurance (x, x, x, x, x).
The body converts L-citrulline DL malate into L-arginine which then converts into nitric oxide. Nitric oxide acts as a vasodilator, relaxing the endothelial cells in the blood vessel walls, causing the vessels to widen. This allows blood to flow through the system more adequately. The muscles can receive more oxygen and nutrients for a longer workout.
As a matter of fact, it may have a beneficial effect on the entire cardiovascular system. Studies on a group of cyclists, patients with heart failure and patients with angina took L-citrulline DL malate supplements and the results showed better blood flow and reduced blood pressure (x, x, x).
Utilizing Amino Acids
During the urea cycle, the body synthesizes the amino acids L-citrulline, L-ornithine and L-arginine. Besides nitrite and urea, L-arginine is also involved in creatine production, which helps muscles to resynthesize adenosine triphosphate (ATP), an energy-reserve molecule.
According to studies, supplementing with L-citrulline DL malate may increase L-arginine synthesis, which may improve amino acid availability and allow the body to use them easier—especially the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA)—by supplying more nitric oxide and creatine to the blood and circulatory system. This increases blood level oxygen and nutrients to help boost muscle growth and repair, energy and even brain function.
A number of studies on cyclists who consumed the supplement suggested those benefits (x, x, x). But always consult your healthcare provider for diagnoses, accurate medical information and permission before taking any supplements.
L-Citrulline DL Malate vs. L-Citrulline
What’s the difference between L-citrulline vs. L-citrulline DL malate? Besides the different names, adding malate to L-citrulline may successfully enhance its benefits. L-citrulline naturally increases nitric oxide levels in the bloodstream and removes ammonia from the body for more efficient circulation, energy and muscle recovery (x). On its own, the malate/malic acid compound naturally helps with pain management and energy due to its involvement in the TCA cycle that the process the body uses to convert food into energy (x).
Combined L-citrulline DL malate supplements may supply more blood and nutrients to the muscles and increase energy production. The supplement may also provide support for athletes and bodybuilders by potentially prolonging endurance, enhancing performance, reducing fatigue and toxin buildup and boosting muscle recovery (x, x, x).
However, always consult your healthcare provider for diagnoses, accurate medical information and permission before taking any supplements.
How to Take L-Citrulline DL Malate
You may be wondering when to take L-citrulline DL malate and how often. That depends on the supplement and the advice from your healthcare provider. The recommended serving size for BulkSupplements L-Citrulline DL-Malate 1:1 Powder and BulkSupplements L-Citrulline 2:1 Pure Powder is 3,000 mg twice a day.
The United States Food and Drug Administration does not regulate supplements. Before consuming any supplements, check with your doctor, dietician or nutritionist for approval. They are trained and experienced and may be more familiar with your health and fitness history in order to better advise you.
Possible Side Effects of L-Citrulline DL Malate Supplements
L-citrulline DL malate supplements are generally safe in healthy and normal doses. L-citrulline is an amino acid and malate is naturally found in food, but some people have reported an upset stomach as a result of the supplements (x, x).
Warnings & Precautions
L-citrulline DL malate may interact negatively with certain medications or drugs such as those used for high blood pressure, erectile dysfunction and heart disease. In addition, there’s insufficient evidence on the effects it may have during pregnancy and breastfeeding, so it may be best to avoid the product (x). Again, always consult your healthcare provider for diagnoses, accurate medical information and permission before taking any supplements.
Where to Buy L-Citrulline DL Malate Supplements
You can purchase L-Citrulline DL Malate supplements in powder form at BulkSupplements.com. The company is an industry-leading manufacturer and distributor for pure dietary supplements. BulkSupplements.com is not just a consumer brand. It also supplies pure ingredients to other brands that distribute other food and supplement products. All products at BulkSupplements.com are manufactured and tested according to current and proper manufacturing practices.
Are you interested in trying L-Citrulline DL malate supplements to help you improve exercise endurance, reduce fatigue, reduce toxin buildup and absorb nutrients more efficiently? Contact BulkSupplements.com to place an order today.
L-citrulline DL malate combines the amino acid L-citrulline and the naturally-occurring compound malate or malic acid. The result is a powerful dietary supplement because the malate may successfully increase the benefits that L-citrulline provides, besides adding its own. Key potential benefits: prolonged endurance, reduced fatigue and toxin buildup and quicker muscle recovery during workouts. L-citrulline DL malate may support overall cardiovascular and cognitive health too!
Though it’s safe to use, beware of the supplement’s potential to interact with certain medications and the lack of information regarding its effects during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Remember to always consult your healthcare provider for diagnoses, accurate medical information and permission before taking any supplements.
**These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.